Last Updated: May 13, 2024


Mrunali Gaikwad


The many benefits of the Cloud - scalability, agility, cost-efficiency, and high-tech integrations look promising. However, the road to successful cloud migration may not be as smooth as you expect. We meet clients who are confused or facing blockages with cloud migration for various reasons. Certainly, we’re there to help. But knowing the cause of the problem prevents roadblocks and makes integration better for you. 

Therefore, in this blog, we have listed some of the most common cloud migration challenges and their solutions. If you’ve been considering cloud migration for your organization or have any confusion, keep reading! 

Top 15 Cloud Migration Challenges and Their Solution

Let us understand the various cloud migration challenges closely and explore reliable solutions for them.

15 Cloud Migration Challenges


Cloud migration offers many benefits, but the path to utilizing them fully isn't always smooth. One of the significant challenges organizations face is ensuring application and infrastructure compatibility with the chosen cloud environment. 

Applications built for on-premise environments might not function seamlessly when transferred to the cloud. This incompatibility can stem from various factors, including:

  • Operating Systems: On-premise systems might rely on older operating systems not natively supported by the cloud provider.
  • Dependencies: Applications may depend on specific software libraries or frameworks unavailable in the cloud environment.
  • Coding Practices: Applications written for physical servers might need code modifications to leverage cloud-specific features and functionalities.

Example Case Study: Bank Migrates Core Systems to the Cloud

JPMorgan Chase, a leading financial institution, undertook a massive cloud migration project to enhance scalability and agility. However, ensuring compatibility with their core banking systems, built on legacy infrastructure, posed a significant challenge for them.  

Solutions That Helped 

  • Recoding: JPMorgan Chase's team re-engineered critical components of their core banking systems to make them compatible with the cloud environment. This involved rewriting code sections and leveraging cloud-native libraries.
  • Re-platforming: For certain applications, a complete re-platforming approach was adopted. This involved rebuilding the applications from scratch using cloud-friendly technologies and frameworks.
  • Cloud-Native Options: They also explored cloud-native options offered by their cloud provider. These services provided pre-built functionalities that aligned with their existing applications, minimizing compatibility issues.

While compatibility is one of the inevitable cloud migration challenges, it shouldn't deter you from your goal. By carefully assessing your applications and dependencies, and adopting solutions like recoding, re-platforming, and containerization, you can ensure a smooth transition to the cloud.  

Choosing Suitable Cloud Services  

Migrating to the cloud is a strategic decision, and a critical part of that strategy involves selecting the right cloud service. This can be a complex task,  as there are numerous cloud providers, each offering a vast array of services and pricing models.  

Why it's a challenge? 

  • Complexity of Cloud Environment: The sheer number of cloud providers and the variety of services they offer can be overwhelming.
  • Misaligned Needs & Services: Choosing services that don't align with your specific business needs can lead to inefficiencies, wasted resources, and higher costs.
  • Future-Proofing: It's important to consider your company's future growth and scalability needs when selecting cloud services. 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Understand Your Needs: Before exploring cloud options, thoroughly assess your business needs. Identify the workloads you want to migrate, desired functionalities, security requirements, and budget constraints. This self-evaluation will act as a roadmap for selecting the most relevant cloud services. 
  • Compare Cloud Providers: Research the major cloud providers like AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). Evaluate each provider based on your specific needs and shortlist 2-3 options for further consideration. 
  • Utilize Cloud Migration Tools: Many cloud providers offer free assessment and migration tools. These tools can analyze your existing infrastructure and recommend suitable cloud services. 
  • Seek Expert Advice: Consider consulting with cloud migration specialists who can provide guidance based on your specific business environment and goals. Their expertise can save you time, and resources, and ensure a smooth migration process. 
  • Start Small, Scale Up: Don't try to migrate everything at once. Begin by choosing a few essential services and migrate those first. This allows you to gain experience with the cloud platform and fine-tune your approach before tackling larger migrations.
Cloud Migration Challenges Call-to-Action

Missing Out On the Right Strategy  

Migrating to the cloud isn't a one-size-fits-all solution. Just like packing for a trip, you need a plan that considers your destination (cloud environment) and the items you're bringing (data and applications). Without a well-defined strategy, your cloud migration can quickly turn into a disorganized mess, leading to wasted time, resources, and money.

Here's how a lack of strategy can impact your cloud migration:

  • Wrong Cloud Environment: Different cloud providers offer a variety of services and pricing structures. Choosing the wrong one can lead to compatibility issues, security vulnerabilities, and unforeseen costs.
  • Data Migration Chaos: Moving massive amounts of data requires careful planning and organization. Without a strategy, you risk data loss, corruption, and extended downtime.
  • Application Incompatibility: Not all applications are built for the cloud. A poor strategy might overlook the need to refactor or re-platform applications, causing delays and functionality issues.
  • Security Lapses: Cloud security is a shared responsibility. A weak strategy might leave your data exposed to cyber threats due to misconfigurations or a lack of access controls.

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Define Your Goals: What are you hoping to achieve with the cloud migration? Increased agility? Scalability? Cost savings? Clearly defined goals will guide your strategy and help you choose the right cloud solutions.
  • Inventory and Assessment: Not all workloads are created equal. Carefully assess your existing infrastructure, applications, and data to understand their cloud compatibility and migration complexity. This will help you prioritize workloads and choose the most suitable migration approach (lift-and-shift, recoding, etc.)
  • Right-size Your Cloud Environment: Don't get caught up in the temptation to overprovision resources. Cloud services are highly scalable, so plan for your current needs with the flexibility to adapt as your requirements evolve.
  • Security From the Start: Integrate security considerations into every step of your strategy. This includes access control policies, data encryption, and regular security audits to ensure your cloud environment remains secure.
  • Embrace a Phased Approach: Migrating everything at once can be overwhelming. Consider a phased approach, prioritizing critical applications and data first. This allows you to gain experience, identify and address any challenges, and refine your strategy as you progress.
  • Seek Expert Help: Cloud migration is a complex process. Don't be afraid to leverage the expertise of cloud consultants or managed service providers (MSPs). Their experience can help you navigate the complexities and ensure a smooth, successful migration.

Vendor Lock-in 

Vendor lock-in is one of the common cloud migration challenges that our clients and various major companies face. This occurs when a company becomes so reliant on a specific cloud provider's services and infrastructure that switching to another provider becomes extremely difficult and expensive. 

Real-Life Example: Dropbox vs. Google Drive

Dropbox, a popular file hosting service, initially struggled when migrating its core infrastructure to Google Cloud Platform (GCP) in 2017. While Dropbox benefitted from GCP's scalability and security, a significant challenge arose due to vendor lock-in.

Dropbox heavily relied on its custom file system and APIs built for its legacy infrastructure. But porting these functionalities directly to GCP wasn't feasible. 

Solutions That Helped Them 

To overcome this, Dropbox implemented a hybrid approach:

  • Re-engineered Code: Dropbox rewrote critical components of their application to be cloud-agnostic. This allowed them to leverage GCP's functionalities while maintaining portability across different cloud platforms.
  • Open-source Tools: They adopted open-source technologies like Apache Cassandra, a NoSQL database, for data storage. This reduced dependency on GCP's proprietary data storage solutions and ensured easier data portability if needed in the future.
  • Multi-cloud Strategy: Dropbox started exploring integrations with other cloud providers like AWS for specific functionalities. As a result, they got a diversified cloud portfolio and reduced reliance on a single vendor.

Data Security & Risk Assessment 

Let's face it, migrating sensitive data to a new environment comes with inherent risks. This is a valid concern – after all, you're entrusting your sensitive information to a third-party provider.  

Real-Life Example: Capital One Breach

In 2019, Capital One suffered a major data breach where a hacker gained access to the personal information of over 100 million customers. The attacker exploited a misconfigured firewall rule in Capital One's cloud environment, highlighting the importance of proper cloud security configurations.

However, with proper planning and due diligence, you can turn this challenge into an opportunity to strengthen your overall security posture. 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Comprehensive Risk Assessment: Before migrating, conduct a thorough risk assessment to identify potential vulnerabilities in your on-premises environment and how they might translate to the cloud. This assessment should include data classification, access control analysis, and potential threats specific to your cloud provider's platform. 
  • Shared Security Model: Cloud providers offer a vast array of security features, but remember it's a "shared security model"  - you are responsible for securing your data within the cloud environment. Leverage your cloud provider's security tools and expertise, but don't rely solely on them. 
  • Encryption: Encrypt your data both at rest and in transit. Encryption at rest scrambles your data while stored in the cloud, while encryption in transit protects it during transfer between your on-premises environment and the cloud. 
  • Access Controls: Implement strict access controls that define who can access your data and what they can do with it. Utilize features like multi-factor authentication and granular permission settings to minimize the risk of unauthorized access. 
  • Regular Security Audits & Monitoring: Continuously monitor your cloud environment for suspicious activity and regularly conduct security audits to identify and address any vulnerabilities that may arise.


Migrating your entire IT infrastructure to the cloud can be a daunting task.  A significant cloud migration challenge lies in prioritization. While deciding which workloads and applications to move first, the wrong choices can lead to wasted resources, delays, and confusion. 

Prioritization is important because: 

  • Migrating everything at once can be slow, expensive, and risky.
  • You might end up with outdated systems in the cloud, negating the benefits.

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Business Value Alignment: Focus on applications that directly impact your business goals. Migrate systems critical to core functionalities or those hindering scalability first.
  • Technical Suitability: Assess your applications for cloud compatibility. Some legacy systems might require modernization before migration or might be better suited for a different approach like refactoring.
  • Dependency Mapping: Identify interdependencies between applications. Migrate applications with minimal dependencies first to minimize disruption.
  • Quick Wins: Consider low-risk applications that can be easily migrated to showcase the benefits of the cloud and build momentum for further migration efforts.

Skill Shortage 

One of the biggest challenges in cloud migration is that companies faces the lack of in-house expertise. Cloud technologies are complex, and successfully migrating and managing them requires a specialized skill set. This includes roles like cloud architects, security specialists, and engineers familiar with specific cloud platforms (AWS, Azure, GCP, etc). 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Invest in Upskilling and Reskilling Existing Staff: Provide training programs on cloud platforms like AWS, Azure, or GCP to your existing IT team. This is a cost-effective way to build internal expertise.
  • Partner With a Dedicated Service Provider: They offer expertise in cloud migration and management. As a result, partnering with dedicated service providers can help you overcome the skill shortage and achieve cloud goals.
  • Hire Cloud-certified Professionals: Look for candidates with certifications like AWS Certified software engineers or Microsoft Azure specialists. These certifications demonstrate a strong understanding of cloud platforms.
  • Build a Culture Of Continuous Learning: Encourage your IT team to stay up-to-date on the latest cloud technologies through conferences, workshops, and online courses.
  • Focus On Automation: Leverage automation tools to streamline cloud migration and management tasks. This can free up your IT team to focus on more strategic initiatives. 

Adoption Resistance 

Despite a well-defined plan, cloud migration can face resistance from various stakeholders within a company. This resistance can stem from fear of the unknown, a lack of understanding of the benefits, or simply a preference for the familiar on-premises environment. Thus overcoming this adoption resistance is crucial for a smooth and successful migration.  

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Develop a Change Management Plan: A well-defined plan outlines the communication strategy, training programs, and support structure to ensure a smooth transition.
  • Executive Sponsorship: Having strong leadership buy-in for the cloud migration project is crucial. Executives can take up the initiative and address employee concerns.
  • Incentivize Adoption: Consider offering incentives to encourage employees to learn and adopt new cloud-based tools and workflows.
  • Focus on User Experience: Prioritize user experience during the cloud migration process. Ensure the new cloud environment is easy to use, intuitive, and integrates seamlessly with existing workflows. 

Uncertain Cloud Migration Costs 

One of the biggest cloud migration challenges organizations face is the uncertainty around the total cost. Unlike on-premises infrastructure with fixed costs, cloud services are billed based on usage, making it difficult to predict the final bill. This lack of clarity can lead to budget overruns and hinder the decision-making process.  

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Understand Current Costs: Before migrating, meticulously assess your on-premise expenses. Factor in hardware maintenance, software licensing, and IT staff time. This establishes a baseline for comparison with cloud costs.
  • Use Cost Optimization Tools: Most cloud providers offer tools that help estimate and monitor your cloud spending. Leverage these to identify areas for optimization, like underutilized resources or unused services.
  • Right-size Your Cloud Resources: Don't over-analyze your requirements! The cloud lets you scale up or down resources as needed. Start with a conservative allocation and adjust based on usage patterns.
  • Explore Reserved Instances: Cloud providers offer significant discounts on resources purchased upfront for a set period. This is ideal for predictable workloads.
  • Consider a Cloud Cost Management Service: These third-party services provide a centralized view of your cloud spending across different providers. They offer recommendations for optimization and cost-reduction strategies. 

Massive Database Migration 

Moving a massive database to the cloud can be daunting. The high volume of data involved can lead to slow transfer times, increased downtime, and even data corruption.   

Real-Life Example: Slack Migrates to Google Cloud Platform (GCP) 

Slack, the popular communication platform, experienced exponential growth and needed a scalable infrastructure to handle its ever-increasing user base. They decided to migrate their massive database, containing billions of messages and files, to the Google Cloud Platform (GCP). However, migrating such a large database presented significant challenges like extended downtime, unacceptably slow transfer speed, and data integrity loss.  

Solutions That Helped Slack  

  • Phased Migration: They broke down the migration into smaller, manageable phases. This minimized downtime and allowed them to migrate data incrementally.
  • Change Data Capture (CDC): The team implemented CDC to capture new data generated while the migration was ongoing. This ensured data consistency and avoided missing any updates.
  • Cloud Storage Transfer Service: Slack leveraged Google Cloud Storage Transfer Service, a high-speed data transfer service, to move the massive dataset efficiently.
  • Minimal Downtime Window: They carefully planned for a short downtime window during the final cutover phase. This reduced confusion among the user base. 

Lack Of a Proper Cloud Migration Plan 

A well-defined roadmap is crucial for any successful journey, and cloud migration is no exception.  Without a comprehensive plan, organizations can find themselves lost in a maze of technical complexities, unexpected costs, and unnecessary downtime.  

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Define Your Goals: Clearly outline your objectives for migrating to the cloud. Are you seeking increased scalability, cost reduction, or improved agility? Understanding your goals helps determine the most suitable cloud platform and migration strategy.
  • Inventory and Assessment: Catalog your IT infrastructure, including applications, data, and dependencies. Evaluate each element to determine the optimal migration approach (lift-and-shift, re-platform, etc.).
  • Phased Migration: Implement a phased approach to minimize disruption. Start by migrating less critical applications and gradually progress to more complex ones. This allows for course correction and reduces the risk of a complete system failure.
  • Cost Optimization: Cloud providers offer a variety of pricing structures. Carefully analyze your needs and choose a plan that aligns with your resource consumption. Tools like cloud cost management platforms can help you optimize your spending.
  • Security is Necessary: Develop a robust cloud security strategy that addresses data encryption, access control, and compliance with relevant regulations. 

DevOps Transformation 

The need for a parallel DevOps transformation often makes up for one of the major cloud migration challenges. However, traditional IT teams, accustomed to on-premise infrastructure and siloed operations, might struggle to adapt to the agile, collaborative approach required by cloud environments. This can lead to delays, inefficiencies, and a failure to fully leverage the cloud's potential. 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Maintain Collaboration: Promote a culture of shared responsibility and break down silos. Encourage joint planning sessions and cross-training between development and operations teams.
  • Automate Everything You Can: Utilize Infrastructure as Code (IaC) tools like Terraform or AWS CloudFormation to automate infrastructure provisioning and configuration. Implement continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines to automate testing, deployment, and monitoring workflows.
  • Invest in DevOps Tools: Leverage cloud-native tools for version control, configuration management, containerization (like Docker), and container orchestration (like Kubernetes). These tools streamline development, deployment, and management processes.
  • Upskilling and Training: Provide comprehensive training on cloud platforms, DevOps principles, and automation tools. Prepare and encourage teams to experiment and learn from each other.

Read: Data Integration Tools

Building Cloud SRE Organization 

Migrating to the cloud isn't a one-time event. It requires a cultural and operational shift, especially when it comes to reliability. Traditional IT operations teams might struggle to adapt to the cloud's dynamic nature. Thus building a Cloud SRE (Site Reliability Engineering) organization is a significant challenge for most companies embarking on cloud migration. 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Skills Development: Invest in training programs to equip your SRE team with cloud-specific expertise. This can involve certifications, workshops, or partnering with cloud providers for training resources.
  • Automate: Cloud SRE heavily relies on automation for tasks like provisioning, scaling, and configuration management. Tools like Infrastructure as Code (IaC) and configuration management platforms streamline these processes.
  • DevOps Collaboration: Foster a culture of collaboration between SRE, development, and DevOps teams. This ensures shared responsibility, faster incident resolution, and smoother deployments. Consider implementing a shared tooling and monitoring approach.
  • Metrics & Monitoring: Cloud environments generate large amounts of data. Develop a robust cloud monitoring strategy to track key metrics like performance, resource utilization, and errors. Leverage cloud-native monitoring tools to gain real-time insights.
  • Incident Response: Establish a clear incident response plan for the cloud. This plan should define roles, responsibilities, communication protocols, and escalation procedures to ensure efficient handling of outages.

Time and Resource Commitment  

Cloud migration is a marathon, not a sprint. It requires a significant investment of time and resources throughout the planning, execution, and post-migration phases. This can be a significant challenge for companies, especially those with limited IT staff or tight deadlines.  

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Phased Approach: Break down the migration into smaller, manageable phases. This allows you to prioritize critical applications and workloads, minimizing disruption.
  • Cloud Migration Specialists: Cloud migration professionals offer their expertise, which can streamline the process and save your internal team valuable time. Therefore, partnering with them may be vital.
  • Utilize Cloud Migration Tools: Many cloud providers offer migration tools that automate tasks like data transfer and server configuration. Use these tools to reduce the manual workload. 
  • Upskilling Existing Staff: Invest in training programs to equip your current staff with the necessary cloud skills. This encourages them to participate in the migration and future cloud management. 

Long-term Strategy Alignment 

Cloud migration is a significant plan, and its success depends on aligning with your company's overall long-term goals. However, it can turn into a challenge because of - mismatched priorities, adding unnecessary features or functionalities, and gaps between different departments. 

Solutions That Can Help 

  • Define Your Long-Term Vision: Clearly articulate your company's long-term goals. What problems are you trying to solve? How will the cloud help achieve your future state?
  • Strategic Cloud Roadmap: Develop a cloud migration roadmap aligned with your long-term vision. While Prioritize workloads based on their strategic importance and how the cloud can benefit them. 
  • Cross-functional Collaboration: Involve all stakeholders from different departments during the planning and execution stages. This paves the way for a shared understanding of the cloud strategy and prevents confusion in decision-making.
  • Cloud-Native Application Development: As you migrate, consider modernizing applications to leverage cloud-native features like microservices and containers. This future-proofs your infrastructure and promotes agility.
  • Continuous Optimization: Cloud environments are dynamic. Monitor your cloud usage, identify areas for improvement, and refine your strategy as your business needs evolve. 

Read More: Application Modernization Challenges

Step-Up For Successful Cloud Migration  

Cloud migration challenges differ for all companies and organizations. However, with careful planning and excellent strategy, you can pave the way through these roadblocks to taste success! To make sure you’re doing everything correctly, you may need software engineering expertise and cloud experts to guide you. 

Narola Infotech can be your reliable partner for cloud migration. Our experts not only bring specific industry experience to the table but also never fail to make an extra effort to execute your plans effectively. Have a project to discuss? Fill out the contact form and relax. We’ll revert in less than 24 hours!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

See the answers to some of our most commonly asked questions below.

Cloud migration offers many benefits, but it's not without its hurdles. Here are some common challenges organizations face: Security and Compliance, Cost Management, Skill Gap, Legacy Systems, Downtime and Performance

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