Machine Learning uses techniques to gain knowledge or value from data that can be used to fulfill specific goals and objectives. We can see its increasing application in our smartphones, computer devices, websites, etc.

As the sources of data proliferate, Machine Learning algorithms emerge not only as efficient but also a cost-effective solution as against manual programming. It has benefited business organizations of various kinds. But there are several Machine learning facts that, if understood, helps one to comprehend it in a better manner.

Six Key Machine learning facts you should know:

1. Machine learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are not the same things.

There is a critical difference between AI and ML that most people overlook. AI machines are programmed to carry out tasks and achieve results that otherwise require human intelligence. Some examples include facial recognition, speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation.

In contrast, ML systems are programmed to make them ‘learn’ how to accomplish an outcome based on data sets fed into them.

The three fundamental components of ML algorithms are:


It is the way to represent or display knowledge on the system. Some of its examples are decision trees, neural networks, and graphical models, among many. Selecting a representation for an algorithm is crucial for selecting the classifiers it can learn.

A classifier is an algorithm that sorts data into various categories of information. Groups of classifiers are known as hypothesis space. A classifier that is not in the hypothesis space will not be learned.


Evaluation refers to the method to assess the hypothesis—for example, accuracy, likelihood, prediction, and recall, among many. The evaluation function is required to differentiate between good and bad classifiers.


Optimization refers to the way a hypothesis is generated, also called the search process. It enables the selection of the highest-scoring classifier. The technique chosen for optimization has a direct impact on the algorithm’s effectiveness.

2. A generalization that goes beyond existing data

One of the Machine learning facts that those starting with ML commonly forget relates to its ultimate data generalization aim. Machine learning data generalization pertains to the effective application of concepts learned by an ML model to new data.

We will be able to make accurate future predictions only when our ML model can efficiently generalize from the training data to that data which it has not encountered so far. Therefore, it is a good idea to keep a sufficient amount of data apart from training data aside and use it on your ML model afterward to see how well it generalizes it.

3. ML cannot determine data relevancy.

While ML can accomplish many great things for you, there is one task that you need to do. It is to ensure that the data being input into it is relevant to the specific task. Since ML picks up on any data pattern, it runs the risk of storing unnecessary information, which can affect its outcome negatively. Alternatively, it can also deem a valid data pattern inconsequential.

4. Overfitting- The bugbear of machine learning

Overfitting is the problem that arises when an ML system learns the training data too well. So much so that any slight variance is picked up and considered as a concept by it. These concepts do not apply to the new data and impair the data generalization ability of these systems.

There are ways to resolve overfitting, like cross-validation and the addition of a regularization term. Nevertheless, they do not guarantee a permanent solution to this problem.

5. Feature engineering – Key to a high performing machine learning model

One of the most important yet lesser-known Machine-Learning facts is related to engineering the features of data prior to it being fed into the model. ML algorithms need features with particular characteristics to perform efficiently.

The main objective of feature engineering is to prepare proper and organized datasets that meet the requirements of machine learning algorithms. According to Luca Massaron, a well-known data scientist, nothing affects the outcome of ML algorithms more than the features of the datasets.

Contrary to what many may think, ML does not involve merely building the datasets and running the algorithms to generate results. It involves laborious processes like data gathering, data integration, data cleaning, and processing.

6. More data does not increase the risk of pattern hallucination.

It is a common belief that higher amounts of data increase the risk of hallucination of ML patterns. But a Machine learning company expert is efficient in decreasing the risk of hallucination caused due to mining greater attributes of similar entities.

Moreover, the risk of pattern hallucination is decreased by the mining of more entities with similar attribute sets. It is because the rules learned from mining them have robust support. It is one of the Machine learning facts that breaks the myth about greater data causing hallucination.


Machine learning is a compelling technology, but it can only be as great as the data used for its training. The above Machine learning facts prove that it comprises so much more than one can commonly think. It is time to gain a better and accurate understanding of it.

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